After a long time, I've finally decided to give Monotone's net.venge.monotone.cvssync branch a try. The code in it implements a bidirectional gateway between Monotone and CVS. What this means is that Monotone can be used for private development while working on a project that already uses CVS (doing the inverse could be... stupid?).
The way it works is basically the following: first of all, you synchronize your local Monotone database with a remote CVS repository, importing the whole revision tree into it using cvs_pull. Secondly, you commit to your local Monotone tree as much as you want. At last, when you want to publish your changes, you push them against the CVS repository and they get integrated nicely (each revision in your local database is translated into a single CVS commit) using cvs_push. There are some small problems, though: during a push, all the new CVS revisions get the same date, but I think this is unsolvable.
Also, if you think that importing the whole CVS tree into your local database is worthless, you can also just import from a given point of the development: i.e., start from a working copy using the cvs_takeover command.
All in all, this is amazing. It will let me work on tmpfs while I'm away during July, being able to push my changes whenever I get Internet access without losing history :-)